# 3d transformation in computer graphics

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## 3D Transformation Matrices For Translation, Scaling & Rotation !

Transformation

In 3D graphics, transformation is often used to operate on vertices and vectors. It is also used to convert them in one space to another. Transformation is performed via multiplication with a matrix. There are typically three types of primitive transformation that can be performed on vertices: translation (where it lies in space relative to the origin), rotation (its direction in relation to the x, y, z frame), and scaling (its distance from origin). In addition to those, projection transformation is used to go from view space to projection space. The D3DX library contains APIs that can conveniently construct a matrix for many purposes such as translation, rotation, scaling, world-to-view transformation, view-to-projection transformation, etc. An application can then use these matrices to transform vertices in its scene. A basic understanding of matrix transformations is required. We will briefly look at some examples below.

Translation

Translation refers to moving or displacing for a certain distance in space. In 3D, the matrix used for translation has the form

where (a, b, c) is the vector that defines the direction and distance to move. For example, to move a vertex -5 unit along the X axis (negative X direction), we can multiply it with this matrix:

If we apply this to a cube object centered at origin, the result is that the box is moved 5 units towards the negative X axis, as figure 5 shows,

after translation is applied.

The effect of translation

In 3D, a space is typically defined by an origin and three unique axes from the origin: X, Y and Z. There are several spaces commonly used in computer graphics: object space, world space, view space, projection space, and screen space.

Rotation

Rotation refers to rotating vertices about an axis going through the origin. Three such axes are the X, Y, and Z axes in the space. An example in 2D would be rotating the vector [1 0] 90 degrees counter-clockwise. The result from the rotation is the vector [0 1]. The matrix used for rotating. degrees clockwise about the Y axis looks like this:

Figure shows the effect of rotating a cube centered at origin for 45 degrees about the Y axis.

Scaling

Scaling refers to enlarging or shrinking the size of vector components along axis directions. For example, a vector can be scaled up along all directions or scaled down along the X axis only. To scale, we usually apply the scaling matrix below:

Where p, q, and r are the scaling factor along the X, Y, and Z direction, respectively. The figure below shows the effect of scaling by 2 along the X axis and scaling by 0.5 along the Y axis.

Source: onlinemca.com

Category: Hardware

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