Creating Silicon Wafers
Computer chips begin as a material called silicon (hence, where "silicon valley" got its name). The material is crafted into thin, large "wafer-like" sheets. These sheets are created through a process where pure silicon crystals are pulled from crystalline material melt. The melt is then sliced into pieces creating the wafers. After they're sliced, the wafers are polished to protect their surface.
Using Ultraviolet Light
After the photoresist is added, a mask (similar to a stencil) is created with the circuit pattern for the chip. The mask is then placed above several lenses to shrink the image to the size of the chip. Finally, ultraviolet light is shined through the mask, hardening the exposed areas of photoresist.
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