BCI Input and Output
One of the biggest challenges facing brain-computer interface researchers today is the basic mechanics of the interface itself. The easiest and least invasive method is a set of electrodes -- a device known as an electroencephalograph (EEG) -- attached to the scalp. The electrodes can read brain signals. However, the skull blocks a lot of the electrical signal, and it distorts what does get through.
To get a higher-resolution signal, scientists can implant electrodes directly into the gray matter of the brain itself, or on the surface of the brain, beneath the skull. This allows for much more direct reception of electric signals and allows electrode placement in the specific area of the brain where the appropriate signals are generated. This approach has many problems, however. It requires invasive surgery to implant the electrodes, and devices left in the brain long-term tend to cause the formation of scar tissue in the gray matter. This scar tissue ultimately blocks signals.
Regardless of the location of the electrodes, the basic mechanism is the same: The electrodes measure minute differences in the voltage between neurons. The signal is then amplified and filtered. In current BCI systems, it is then interpreted by a computer program, although you might be familiar with older analogue encephalographs, which displayed the signals via pens that automatically wrote out the patterns on a continuous sheet of paper.
In the case of a sensory input BCI, the function happens in reverse. A computer converts a signal, such as one from a video camera. into the voltages necessary to trigger neurons. The signals are sent to an implant in the proper area of the brain, and if everything works correctly, the neurons fire and the subject receives a visual image corresponding to what the camera sees.
Another way to measure brain activity is with a Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI). An MRI machine is a massive, complicated
device. It produces very high-resolution images of brain activity, but it can't be used as part of a permanent or semipermanent BCI. Researchers use it to get benchmarks for certain brain functions or to map where in the brain electrodes should be placed to measure a specific function. For example, if researchers are attempting to implant electrodes that will allow someone to control a robotic arm with their thoughts, they might first put the subject into an MRI and ask him or her to think about moving their actual arm. The MRI will show which area of the brain is active during arm movement, giving them a clearer target for electrode placement.
So, what are the real-life uses of a BCI? Read on to find out the possibilities.
For years, the brain of an adult human was viewed as a static organ. When you are a growing, learning child, your brain shapes itself and adapts to new experiences, but eventually it settles into an unchanging state -- or so went the prevailing theory.
Beginning in the 1990s, research showed that the brain actually remains flexible even into old age. This concept, known as cortical plasticity. means that the brain is able to adapt in amazing ways to new circumstances. Learning something new or partaking in novel activities forms new connections between neurons and reduces the onset of age-related neurological problems. If an adult suffers a brain injury, other parts of the brain are able to take over the functions of the damaged portion.
Why is this important for BCIs? It means that an adult can learn to operate with a BCI, their brain forming new connections and adapting to this new use of neurons. In situations where implants are used, it means that the brain can accommodate this seemingly foreign intrusion and develop new connections that will treat the implant as a part of the natural brain.
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